A Guide to the Connecticut School Desegregation Collection

A Guide to the Connecticut School Desegregation Collection

Summary Information

Title
A Guide to the Connecticut School Desegregation Collection
Creator
Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder, PC.
Creator
Tirozzi, Gerald.
Inclusive Dates
1965-1994
Extent
3.55 Linear feet
Abstract
The Connecticut School Desegregation Collection consisits of materials related to the legal issues surrounding school desegregation in Hartford and Bridgeport, Connecticut. The collection provides an overview of the regional and national concerns in the area of desegregation, and two court cases that fought to bring an end to school segregation and discrimination.
Call Number
2002.0044
Language
English
Finding Aid Prepared By
Finding aid prepared by James Brundage. (June 2012)
Repository
University of Connecticut Libraries 405 Babbidge Road Unit 1205 Storrs, Connecticut, 06269-1205 860.486.2524 archives@uconn.edu

Preferred Citation

[Item description, #:#], Connecticut School Desegregation Collection. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center,  University of Connecticut Libraries.

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Access and Use

Acquisition Information

The Sheff v. O'Neill materials were donated in 1996, presumably by Mr. Tirozzi (no documentation). The Bridgeport materials were donated in 2001 by the law firm of Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder.

Access Restrictions

The collection is open and available for research.

Preferred Citation

[Item description, #:#], Connecticut School Desegregation Collection. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center,  University of Connecticut Libraries.

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Controlled Access Headings

Genre(s)

  • Correspondence
  • Legal documents
  • Publications

Geographic Name(s)

  • Bridgeport (Conn.)
  • Connecticut
  • Hartford (Conn.)

Subject(s)

  • Discrimination in education
  • Education
  • Educational law and legislation
  • Minorities
  • School integration
  • Segregation in education

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History

The issue of desegregation of Connecticut's schools became a legal one in 1975 and continues today. The collection provides an overview of regional and national concerns in the area of desegregation.

In 1989 Milo Sheff, a ten year old fourth grader from  Hartford, CT, joined with seventeen other school children to file a lawsuit against the state of  Connecticut, and Governor  William O'Neill. Alledging that their constitutional rights to a public education and their rights to equal protection under the law were being violated, they called for the state to change its existing policy on educational equality. The case was originally argued in  Hartford Superior Court, and was ruled in favor of the state and the governor. The judge ruled that school officials were not obligated to correct educational inequalities, no matter how they may have come to transpire. Following the finding by the  Superior Court, the case was appealed to the  Connecticut Supreme Court. In 1996 the superior court overruled the lower court's ruling, stating that the state did in fact have an obligation to provide Connecticut's school children with equal educational opportunities. It also ruled that children had a constitutional right to a public education, one that could not be altered based on ethnic or racial background.

The debate surrounding Bridgeport's public school desegregation began in the 1970s and continued throughout the 1980s. In November 1975 the NAACP, the  Spanish American Coalition (SAC), a group of community organizations, and individual black and hispanic parents filed a lawsuit in  U.S. District Court against the  Bridgeport Board of Education, and the  Connecticut State Board of Education. In 1978 the Mayor, Comptroller, and Board of Appointment and Taxation were added as defendants. The lawsuit was filed because the plaintiffs believed the Board of Education had created a dual school system, discriminating against black and hispanic students.

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Scope and Content

The collection contains legal files, documents, reports, studies, correspondence, publications, conference proceedings, papers and similar materials pertaining to two lawsuits concerning the desegregation of Connecticut's public schools.

Series I contains materials related to Connecticut's Sheff v. O'Neill case, 1965-1994, and contains documents issued by state agencies, educational associations and the city of Hartford, as well as reports from academic institutions. Also included is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the documents compiled by  David R. Gilmore. The exhibits have been arranged chronologically and assigned a file number, which is cross-referenced in the bibliography.

Series II is comprised of the Bridgeport School Desegregation Files (undated, 1972-1983). The series contains publications, papers and conference proceedings collected in connection with the desegregation of the Bridgeport public schools. Also included in the series are reference materials related to school desegregation cases in other American cities. The type of materials in the series are similar in nature to those in Series I and therefore have also been arranged chronologically by publication date.

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Collection Inventory

Series I: Sheff v. O'Neill, 1965-1994 

BoxFolder

Bibliography [see also Appendix A], undated 

1:1

Exhibits [numbers correspond to bibliography] 

BoxFolder

1— Schools for Hartford, 1965 

1:2

2— Summary of Harvard Report, 1965 

1:3

3— Proposal to Plan and Study School Programs from Children Involved in a Regional Desegregation Plan, 1966 

1:4

4— Equality and Quality in the Public Schools: Report of a Conference, 1966 

1:5

5— Equality of Education Opportunity, 1966 

1:6

6— Policy Statement Concerning Quality of Education for Children in Minority Groups, 1966 

1:7

7— Policy Statement Concerning Quality of Education for Children in Minority Groups, 1967 

1:8

8— Correspondence from Mr. Steel to Commissioner Sanders; Statement of Policy Proposed for adoption by representatives of NAACP to CT State Board of Education; Statement of Policy on De Facto Segregated Public Schools from Board of Regents, SUNY; Correspondence from NY Commissioner Allen to Local Educational Agencies, 1967 

1:9

9— Minority Imbalance in Connecticut Schools, ca. 1967 

1:10

10— Memo from Intergroup Education Division to Education Subcommittee, Legislative Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities regarding problem of interdistrict segregation, 1968 

1:11

11— De Facto School Segregation and the Student: A Study of the Schools in Connecticut's Five Major Cities, 1968 

1:12

12— Changes in Racial Composition and De Facto Segregation in Pupils in the Public Schools of Five Connecticut Cities: 1963-1967, 1969 

1:13

13— A Study of Urban School Needs in the Five Largest Cities in Connecticut, 1969 

1:14

14— Report of the Legislative Commission on Human Rights and opportunities, 1969 

1:15

15— Racial Imbalance and Regionalization, 1969 

1:16

16— Public Act No. 773: An Act Concerning Racial Imbalance in the Public Schools, 1969 

1:17

17— Preliminary Report on the Distribution of Minority-Group Pupils in Connecticut Public Schools, 1968-1969, ca. 1969 

1:18

18— Complaint in Lumpkin v. Dempsey, 1970 

1:19

19— Community Development Action Plan: Education 1971-1975, 1970 

1:20

20— Complaint in Hartford v. Meskill, 1972 

1:21

21— Memorandum Summarizing Plaintiff's Proof in Lumpkin v. Meskill, 1972 

1:22

22— Financing Connecticut's Schools: Final Report of the Commission to Study School Finance and Equal Educational Opportunity, 1975 

1:23

23— A Plan for Promoting Equal Educational Opportunity in Connecticut, 1979 

2:24

24— Advancing Equal Education Opportunity and Access to Quality Integrated Education in the Public Schools of the State of CT, ca. 1980 

2:25

25— Advisory Report: Policy and Planning Implications, 1981 

2:26

26— A Plan for Compliance with the Racial Imbalance Regulations of the Connecticut State Department of Education, 1981 

2:27

27— Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 31, pp. 230-239, 1983 

2:28

28— Connecticut's Challenge: An Agenda for Educational Equity and Excellence, 1984 

2:29

29— A Report Providing Background Information Concerning the Chronology and Status of Statutes, Regulations, and Processes Regarding Racial Imbalance in CT Schools, 1984 

2:30

30— Interim Report of the Racial Imbalance Law and Regulations Advisory Committee, 1985 

2:31

31— Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 1985 

2:32

32— School Desegregation and Black Occupational Attainments: Results from a Long-term Experiment, 1985 

2:33

33— The Issue of Racial Imbalance and Quality Education in Connecticut's Public Schools, 1986 

2:34

34— Circular Letter C-15 on the State Board of Education Policy Statement on Equal Educational Opportunity, 1986 

2:35

35— Metropolitan Education, 1, pp. 65-77, 1986 

2:36

36— Connecticut's Common Core of Learning, 1987 

2:37

37— Report from the Bilingual Education Legislation Review Task Force to the Commissioner of Education, 1987 

2:38

38— Composite document containing deliberations on Racial Imbalance Act Regulations, 1969-1987 

2:39

39— Connecticut State Department of Education Report on the Recommendations Issued by the Bilingual Education Legislation Review Task Force, 1987 

2:40

40— Briefing on Existing State Programs, ca. 1987 

2:41

41— A Report on Racial/Ethnic Equity and Desegregation in Connecticut's Public Schools, 1988 

2:42

42— Alternate Proposal to Address Racial Imbalance, 1988 

2:43

43— Background and Discussion Paper on School Racial/Ethnic Balance, 1988 

2:44

44— Indicators of Success: A Report on Progress in Implementing the Goals and Objectives of “Design for Excellence: Connecticut's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education, 1988 

2:45

45— Quality and Integrated Education: Options for Connecticut, 1989 

3:46

46— Cover Memo and Copy of Governor Weicker's Charge to the Commission on Quality and Integrated Education, 1989 

3:47

47— Governor's Commission on Quality and Integrated Education Request for Foundation Support: Prospectus, 1989 

3:48

48— A Pastoral Statement on School Desegregation in Connecticut, 1989 

3:49

49— Review of Research on School Desegregation's Impact on Elementary, 1989 

3:50

50— In Pursuit of Promise, 1990 

3:51

51— Challenge for Excellence” Connecticut's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education: A Policy Plan 1991-1995, 1990 

3:52

52— Addendum to Background and Discussion Paper on School Racial/Ethnic Balance, 1990 

3:53

53— Interoffice Memorandum on Crossing the Bridge to Equity and Excellence: A Vision of Quality and Integrated Education for CT, 1990 

3:54

54— Chronology of State of CT Activities Advancing Racial/Ethnic Equity and Desegregation in CT's Public Schools w/ Cover Memo re State Racial Imbalance Laws, 1990 

3:55

55— Special Connecticut Mastery Test Report: Students at Risk Academically, 1990 

3:56

56— PAQIE: Inventory of Progress to Reduce Racial Imbalance, with cover memo from Joan Martin, 1990 

3:57

57— Next Steps re “Quality and Integrated Education: Options for CT, 1990 

3:58

58— Critical Components of Integration Plans, 1990 

3:59

59— Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in CT Public Higher Education: The First Five Years 1985-1990, 1990 

3:60

60— Statewide Evaluation of the Priority School District Program: A Second Triennial Report, 1990 

3:61

61— Crossing the Bridge to Equality and Excellence: A Vision of Quality and Integrated Education for CT, 1990 

3:62

62— Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Key Strategies for Achieving High Quality and True Integration in CT's School: An Addendum to the Draft Report of the Governor's Commission on Quality and Integrated Education, 1990 

3:63

63— Connecticut's Education Initiative: The Vision and Reality, 1990 

3:64

64— Indicators of Success: A Report on Progress in Implementing the Goals and Objectives of “Design for Excellence: CT's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education, 1986-1990, 1990 

3:65

65— Meeting the Challenge: Condition of Education in Connecticut, 1990/91, 1991 

3:66

66— Tables of Desegregation, Expenditures, Demographics, and Attitude Survey Data, Connecticut and Nationwide, 1991 

3:67

67— Final Evaluation Report: 1990-1991 Hartford Project Concern Program, with Appendix: Almost 25 years of Project Concern: An Overview of the Program and its Accomplishments, 1991 

3:68

68— Proposed Integration, Desegregation and Racial Balance Bills in CT, 1981-1991, 1991 

3:69

69— A Major Proposal for the Restructuring of CT's Educational Delivery System, 1992 

3:70

70— A Proposed Three Year Design for the Project Concern Evaluation, 1992 

4:71

71— Connecticut's Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Neglected Resource, 1992 

4:72

72— Solutions for CT's Public Schools in the 1990s and Beyond, 1992 

4:73

73— The Urban Agenda, 1992 

4:74

74— Connecticut Recruitment Network for Educational Diversity: Its Forum, 1992 

4:75

75— Finding Niches: Desegregated Students Sixteen Years Later—Final Report on the Educational Outcomes of Project Concern, Hartford, Connecticut, 1992 

4:76

76— Minority Students and Staff Report, 1992 

4:77

77— Environmental Factors Influencing Educational Program Outcomes: A Review of Research, 1992 

4:78

78— State Department of Education Activities in Response to Recommendations Proposed in “Crossing the Bridge to Equality and Excellence”, 1992 

4:79

79— Total Education (Draft), 1992 

4:80

80— Cover Memo to Attys. Tegeler and Stone re Exhibit 498, 1992 

4:81

81— A Descriptive Study of the Educational Resources of the Hartford Public Schools and Disparities with other Districts, 1992 

4:82

82— Major State Policies and Programs affecting Public Education, 1992 

4:83

83— Plaintiff's Opening Argument in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1992 

4:84

84— Opening Statement by Professor John Brittain in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1992 

4:85

85— Opening Statement by Assistant Attorney General John Whelan in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1992 

4:86

86— Indicators of Success: A Report of Progress in Implementing the Goals and Objectives of “Challenge for Excellence: Connecticut's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education—A Policy Plan 1991-1995”, 1992 

4:87

87— A Voice and a Choice for Connecticut: Governor Weicker Unveils Plan for Quality, Integrated Schools, 1993 

4:88

88— Memorandum to CSDE Associated Commissioners and Bureau Chiefs re Testimony of Witnesses in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1993 

4:89

89— Defendants' Post-Trial Brief in Sheff v. O'Neill, CV 89-0360977S, 1993 

4:90

90— Plaintiff's Post-Trial Brief in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1993 

5:91

91— Plaintiff's Reply Brief in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1993 

5:92

92— Public Act No. 93-263 An Act Improving Educational Quality and Diversity, 1993 

5:93

93— Guide for the Local Advisory Process under Public Act 93-263, An Act Improving Educational Quality and Diversity, 1993 

5:94

94— Report on School Desegregation Survey, 1993 

5:95

95— Request for Proposals: Interdistrict Cooperative Grant 1994-1995, 1994 

5:96

96— Request for Proposals: Interdistrict Magnet School under the Interdistrict Cooperative Grant, 1994 

5:97

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Series II: Bridgeport School Desegregation Files , (undated, 1972-1983) 

BoxFolder

School Desegregation Organizers' Manual, undated 

6:98

Bridgeport School Desegregation—Twenty Questions and Answers, undated 

6:99

Your Child and Busing, 1972 

6:100

It's Not the Distance, “It's the Niggers.” Comments on the Controversy over School Busing, 1972 

6:101

School Desegregation in Ten Communities, 1973 

6:102

Equal Opportunity in Suburbia, 1974 

6:103

Continuing Challenge: The Past and Future of Brown v. Board of Education, 1975 

6:104

Making Civil Rights Sense out of Revenue Sharing Dollars, 1975 

6:105

Twenty Years after Brown: Equality of Educational Opportunity, 1975 

6:106

Law and Contemporary Problems, v. 39, #2, 1975 

6:107

Citizen Guide to Desegregation: A Report of the Citizens' Council for Ohio Schools, 1976 

6:108

University of Chicago School Review, v. 84, #3, 1976 

6:109

School Desegregation—Making It Work, 1976 

6:110

Fulfilling the Letter and Spirit of the Law: Desegregation of the Nation's Public Schools, 1976 

7:111

School Desegregation in Colorado Springs, CO, 1977 

7:112

Adopt-A-School Dallas Style: A Community Participation Model, 1977 

7:113

School Desegregation in Kalamazoo, MI, 1977 

7:114

School Desegregation in Ogden, UT, 1977 

7:115

School Desegregation in Erie, PA, 1977 

7:116

School Desegregation in Minneapolis, MN, 1977 

7:117

Viewpoints and Guidelines on Court Appointed Citizens Monitoring Commissions in School Desegregation, 1977 

7:118

School Desegregation in Williamsburg County, SC, 1977 

7:119

School Desegregation in Peoria, IL, 1977 

7:120

School Desegregation in Little Rock, AR., 1977 

7:121

School Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson, TN, 1977 

7:122

School Desegregation in Racine, WI, 1977 

7:123

School Desegregation in Kirkwood, MO, 1977 

7:124

School Desegregation in Santa Barbara, CA, 1977 

7:125

School Desegregation in Greenville, MS, 1977 

7:126

School Desegregation in Waterloo, IA, 1977 

7:127

School Desegregation in Ossining, NY, 1977 

7:128

School Desegregation in Berkeley, CA, 1977 

7:129

Government, Politics and the Public Schools: A Preliminary Study of Three Cities, 1977 

7:130

Desegregation and Black Achievement (Working Paper), 1977 

7:131

School Desegregation in Metropolitan Areas: Choices and Prospects, 1977 

7:132

Urban School Desegregation Costs. Part I. Case Studies, 1977 

7:133

Integrated Education, Issue #90, v. 15, #6, 1977 

8:134

Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program v. III, 1978 

8:135

Resolving the Desegregation Issue in the St. Louis Public Schools. Part I, 1978 

8:136

Citizen Guide to Quality Education: A Report of the Citizens' Council for Ohio Schools, 1978 

8:137

Desegregation: Problems, Successes and Next Steps, 1978 

8:138

Report and Recommendations of the Joint Select Committee on School Desegregation to the Ohio General Assembly, 1978 

8:139

Resolving the Desegregation Issue in the St. Louis Public Schools. Part II, 1978 

8:140

Orderly Schools that Serve All Children, 1979 

8:141

Progress—A Report of Desegregation Trends in the States, 1980 

8:142

Legal Analysis—Trends in School Desegregation Law #4, 1980 

8:143

State Leadership Toward Desegregating Education: A Positive Future, 1980 

8:144

procedural Manual for Monitoring, Dispute Resolution and Modification of Federal Desegregation Court Orders in the Boston Public Schools, 1983 

8:145

APPENDIX A, PA 93-263 Evaluation Project, 

THIRTY CONNECTICUT YEARS: A Bibliography of Desegregation Activity in Connecticut, by David R. Gilmore. 1965-1944 

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